张兵 赵丽云 王惠君 何宇纳 刘爱东 于文涛 贾凤梅 张晴 李艳红 翟凤英
中国疾病预防控制中心营养与食品安全所 北京 100050
摘要：目的 描述中国3～17岁城乡儿童青少年的零食消费情况、消费特点以及零食对此人群能量营养素摄入的贡献。方法 数据来自中国健康与营养调查（1991～2004）、2002年中国居民营养与健康状况调查、2007年北京市和湖北省居民零食专题调查。零食消费率和对能量营养素贡献的计算使用连续三天24小时膳食回顾调查数据，吃零食1次以上则为消费零食，以此计算消费率。结果 1991～2004年，3~17岁儿童青少年零食消费率及平均每天零食消费量均有上升趋势。2002年中国城乡3~17岁儿童青少年零食消费率为35.1%，其中城市55.7%、农村29.6%。零食提供的能量为7.7%、膳食纤维为18.2%、维生素C17.9%、钙9.9%、维生素E 9.7%、铁6.9%、锌6.3%。零食消费原因更多是好吃、渴/饿了或者食品广告宣传；最常在家和学校消费；多由家人提供，也有自己购买。每周吃4~6天以上糖果及巧克力、膨化小食品等零食者占一定比例。结论 合理指导3~17岁儿童青少年零食选择和消费十分重要。本文结果可能低估零食对儿童青少年膳食及能量营养素摄入的影响。
关键词：零食 儿童 青少年
中图分类号： R153.2 文献标识码：A
Snacks consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years
YU Dongmei, ZHANG Bing,ZHAO Liyun，WANG Huijun, et al.
National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
Abstract：Objective To describe the status of snacks consumption, the characteristics, and the contribution to their diet and nutrients intake in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years.
Methods Chinese health and nutritional survey (1991-2004), Chinese National nutrition and health survey (2002), and 2007 typical survey on snacks in Chinese residents were used in this report. The incidence of snacks consumption and snacking contribution were calculated by consecutive day 3 dietary recalls of the first 2 surveys. At least 1 snacks intake in 3 days was snacking consumption. Results The incidences of snacks consumption in Chinese population at the ages of 3-17 years were increased from 1991（13.2%） to 2004（19.3%）. There were 35.1% of Chinese children and adolescents consuming snacks, 55.7% in urban and 29.6% in rural. Snacks provided 7.7% of total daily energy, 18.2% of fiber, 17.9% of VC, 9.9% of calcium, 9.7% of VE，6.9% of iron and 6.3% of zinc. The snacks were mainly consumed in the evening. The main reasons were not nutrition of food but good taste, thirsty or hungry and food advertisement. The location of snacking was mainly at home and school. The snacks came from parents or other family members. They also buy snacks themselves. The consumption of candies and chocolate, jelly more than 4-6day a week had a certain proportion. Conclusion It was important to supervise snacks selection and consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3～17 years. The limitations of snacks consumption data perhaps lowed underestimate the effects of snacks to dietary intake.
key words：snacks， children，adolescents